Thursday, July 9, 2020

Lean manufacturing tools | QSQTECH.COM


Hello friends, 
Today, We'll discuss on some important Lean manufacturing tools. 
Lets start discussion on this topic. Hopefully, you'll understand this topic.
First of all, thanks for visiting. 
Lean manufacturing.


Lean manufacturing is a manufacturing strategy in which improving the value added activities, and identifies non-value added activities and tries to eliminate it. Some tools are used for this.

We will mention some of the important tools here. 

1. WHAT IS 5S?

The following five things are manily mentioned in this tool, which fulfill this 5S word.

1S: Sorting

2S: Set in order

3S: Shine

4S: Standardize

5S: Sustain

5S Meaning.


Kaizen is a Japanese word for "Improvement".
KAI means "change" or
ZEN means "good". 

Kaizen is a way of workplace management brings to small incremental changes made for improve productivity and minimizing wastage. 
Kaizen refers to activities that brings continuously improve in all functions.
Masaaki is known as the developer of Imai kaizen. 


TAICHI OHNO is founder of Toyota Production System.
He defined the 7 types of muda.
He says that, all we are doing is looking at timeline from the moment of customer gives us an order to the point, when we collect the cash,and we are reducing that timeline by removing the non value added wastage.
Originally, Toyota Production System was called "Just In Time” production system which is popularly known as a lean manufacturing process.


There are 3 types of waste.
  1. MUDA
  2. MURA
  3. MURI

1. MUDA: 

It is a Japanese term that means waste. Any activity that doesn't add value. It only consumes time & cost.

There are two types of MUDA.
TYPE-1 MUDA: It includes non-value added activities in the processes that are necessary for the end customer. As a result, it can be minimized. E.g.  Inspection. 

TYPE-2 MUDA: It includes non-value added activities in the processes that are unnecessary for the customer. As a result, it should be eliminated.
E.g. — Rework.


There are two types of activities. 
  1. Value added activity 
  2. Non value added activity 

1.  Value added activity: 

This is the activity that transfers the product in such a form for which the customer pays us.

2. Non-value added activity:

This is an activity that doesn't add any value to the product and the customer doesn't pay for it either. 
We do value added activity 10% and non-value added activity we do 90%.

Non-value added activity is of two types.
  1. Necessary waste
  2. Pure waste

1. Necessary waste:

This is the activity that is necessary to run a business but can minimize it. Such as, inspection which doesn't add value but is necessary to prevent defect outflow from our end to customer, and it also maintains quality. 

2. Pure waste: 

This is an activity that only consumes resources but doesn't add any value to the product. It is not needed by the organization  nor does the customer pay for it. Such activities should be eliminated. Like- Inventory, wait time, rework, excess check.


  1. Defect
  2. Overproduction 
  3. Waiting 
  4. Non-utilized talent (New)
  5. Transportation 
  6. Inventory 
  7. Motion
  8. Extra processing 
In all these form of muda, Non utilized talent is that was later develop. It is developed by Toyota Production System (TPS).

1. Waste of Defect/Repair/Reject: 

Rejection or scrap generated for not being able to produce a quality product in the first place is called a defect. Due to the production of scrap, the material which is scrap, is checked, rework or segregation and repair. The cost is fixed. it is called waste of defect.

2. Waste of overproduction: 

Creating a product excessively or prerequisite and without the need of the customer is called overproduction. Overproduction is the worst waste of everyone else.

3. Waste of waiting:

Waiting of the operator due to delay between an operation or the machine being stuck for some reason or the machine being busy, is called waiting. 

4. Waste of non-utilized talent:

The company's most important resources are its own employees. Not being able to use the right time and talent of its employees is waste of non-utilized talent. For example- Putting technician in paperwork. Problem solving only by the experts. Do not include everyone in suggestions and improvements. 

5. Waste of tranportation:

Any unnecessary movement of material, people, information, or supplies between process that is not required for 'just in time' production service. It also creates an opportunity for damage to occur.
For example- Transportation of cheaper component from one country to another. 

6. Waste of inventory: 

Excess parts, materials or work in process that is not being used.

7. Waste of motion: 

Any motion of people or machine that does not add value to the product or process.

8. Waste of extra processing:

Over processing is putting more into the merchandise than is valued by the customer.

2. MURA : 

It means unevenness, uniformity & irregularity.
Any activity that does not add value.
Unlevel workloads on people & machine.

3. MURI : 

It is the Japanese term for overburden.
It means strenuous conditions for both workers and equipment as well as for the work process.


It is an inventory management system which is used to manage the stock that is kept. 
FG Barcode management system.

It involves receiving good from the suppliers as and when required and rather than carrying a large inventory at once. Companies used this inventory strategy to increase efficiency and reduce wastage, so that the manufacturing process could only receive goods as needed which reduce inventory cost. This method requires procedure of focus demand accurately. 
This strategy is also called Toyota Production System (TPS) because it was developed by Toyota in Japan. This strategy was first used by Toyota in 1970s and it gave them good results in manufacturing journey. 

Just In Time (JIT) is also known by different name in different companies: 

  • Lean Manufacturing 
  • Just In Time 
  • Toyota Production System 
  • Lean Production 
  • Synchronous Manufacturing.


  • Less space needed 
  • Reduce inventory 
  • Reduce wastage 
  • Smaller investment 
  • Healthy cash flow 
  • Involve both supplier and customer to eliminate non value added activity. 
  • Improve quality and productivity. 


  • Risk of running out of stock 
  • Lack of control over time frame 
  • More planning required 
  • Little room for mistake 

The aim of JIT strategy us to eliminate the wastage and continuous improvement in productivity.

JIT (Just In Time) can't be implemented without eliminating or reducing seven deadly wastes from the manufacturing process. So in order to apply JIT, seven deadly wastes have to be eliminated from the process.
On seven wastes, in the previous concept 3M (Muda, Mura, Muri) was discussed as seven types of Muda.
You can read this concept by clicking the link above.


  1. Defect
  2. Overproduction 
  3. Waiting 
  4. Non-utilized talent (New)
  5. Transportation 
  6. Inventory 
  7. Motion
  8. Extra processing 
In all these form of muda, Non utilized talent is that was later develop. It is developed by Toyota Production System (TPS). 


Root cause analysis is the fundamental breakdown or failure of a process which, when resolved, prevents from recurrence of a problem.
For a particular product problem, Root cause is the factor that, when you fix it, the problem goes away and not come back. 

 Root cause analysis is a systematic approach to get the true root causes of our process problem. 


  • To prevent problem from recurring. 
  • To reduce possible injury to personal. 
  • To reduce rework and scrap. 
  • Increase competitiveness 
  • Promote happy customer and stack holders. 
  • Ultimately, reduce cost and save money. 


Poka-yoke is also called a mistake proofing element.
Poka yoke is a system which prevents the mistakes from happening or if mistakes are happen and immediately catches and after that we correct it.

Mistake proofing (Poka-Yoke) is the activity of awareness, detection, and prevention of mistake which adversely affect :-
  • Our customers & consumers (Defects) 
  • Our employees (injuries) 
And result is zero.


Awareness means knowing about allow the mistakes to our process owner and associates of shop floor. We will make our process or product design such be prepare so that we can prevent or detect the defects easily.


Detection means we allowing the mistakes. We are not preventing it, but we install a system that if mistakes are allowing then we catch & detect them and stop them before reaching customer.


Prevention means that we will such changes in design so that any mistake cannot be done by mistakenly. Not allowing the chances for the error to occur within the first place.
Prevention is the best other than.


  • Reprimand workers 
  • Give motivational talks to worker              (Tell them to pay attention and be more careful) 
  • Retrain workers 


  1. You should remove the opportunity for error 
  • Improve the process 
  • Make wrong action more difficult 

2. You can't remove the opportunity for error, then,
  • Make it easier to discover the error that does occur. 

Thursday, July 2, 2020

Inspection | Types of Inspection | QSQTECH.COM


Hello friends, 
Today, We'll discuss on Inspection. Inspection is necessary for controlling quality in every certified organization. 
Lets start discussion on this important topic. Hopefully, you'll understand this topic.
First of all, thanks for visiting.
Now, below topics that are covering today.


Inspection is defined as a process which is used to controlling and checking or evaluating the quality of a product to the laid quality standards. 
Inspector image.

Evaluating a lot of products by considering the given quality standards as a reference whether it is correct or not.
Quality standards may be Final inspection standard, control plan, work instruction PCS, SOP etc. It is necessary to have a quality standard for inspection which we consider parts to be inspected.


There can be a lot of objectives monitoring, some important points are given below.

  • Parts are inspected to determine whether the part taken from the lot is OK or NG. It separates the defective parts from OK part ones. 
    Check sheet image.
  • Customer satisfaction will remain if the defective part is rejected before reaching to the customer. It prevents defect outflow to customer. 
  • Inspection is necessary to prevent the expenses of child parts and other BOP assembly or sub assembly in defective part. It helps for avoiding wastes. 
  • It helps the companies to sustain their reputation by maintaining quality standards.
  • To find out the defects in raw material and error in workmanship. 

According to lean manufacturing system, inspection is a non value added activity. 
As we have read in the previous concept '3M (Muda, Mura, Muri), there are two types of MUDA (Waste). 
Type-1 MUDA and Type -2 MUDA
Types -1 MUDA includes necessary non value added activity. 
Inspection is the necessary non value added activity. Because the inspection product does not add any value, but it is necessary for the company.


  • Inspection of incoming material 
  • Inspection during manufacturing 
  • Mechanical and metallurgical inspection
  • Tool inspection 
  • Finished products inspection


  • Inspection of incoming raw material, BOP/child parts coming from supplier is done at IQA stage. IQA inspector is responsible for incoming parts inspection.
  • Inspection during manufacturing is done at inprocess inspection stage. At inprocess stage, inprocess inspector is checking every dimensions of part according to given standard. Sampling inspection plan is also follow for sampling inspection at this stage.
  • Mechanical and metallurgical inspection is done for checking raw material properties and other testing procedures. This responsibility is given to IQA person and lab person.
  • Tool inspection work is done by laboratory. It is also known as instruments validation. This is very important for manufacturing that the instrument we use must have zero error. 
  • Finished goods inspection is done at PDI (Pre Dispatch Inspection) stage. In this stage, parts to be checked on 100% inspection and sampling inspection. 
    PDI Stage.


Based upon method of inspection there are many types of inspection, but here we will discuss on some important broad level types of inspection.
  • Remedial Inspection 
  • Inprocess Inspection 
  • Layout Inspection 
  • Pre Dispatch Inspection 
  • Sampling Inspection 
  • Firewall Inspection.

Remedial Inspection: 

When, any issue in supplier's part comes from the customer or there is an internal issue, then corrective action and preventive action is taken for that. Then it is checked by deciding the frequency of inspection whether the preventive action that we took is being followed or not. This inspection is called remedial inspection. 

Inprocess Inspection: 

In this type of inspection, parts are checked after every one hour. Sometimes, make a frequency of numbers like part is checked after every 10 parts or 15 parts or 50 parts.
In this way, Inprocess inspection is performed in company. 
Inprocess Inspection.

Layout Inspection: 

In this, ballooning the part's drawing and identifying all the dimensions in it, numbering it. According to this, All the dimensions and features of part are checked.

Pre Dispatch Inspection:

In this stage, parts to be checked on 100% inspection and sampling inspection with reference to the given limit sample part.
This type of inspection is follow its own different standard. 

Sampling Inspection: 

In this inspection method, parts are checked on sampling basis. Sampling standard followed for parts inspection.

Firewall Inspection: 

In this type of inspection method, every part is checked is mandatory. It is also known as 100% inspection method. 
Firewall Inspection.

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