Friday, November 29, 2019

APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning) | How it is done in an organization | QSQTECH.COM

ADVANCED PRODUCT QUALITY PLANNING (APQP) :

Hey guys, Today, we will understand about Advanced Product Quality Control (APQP).
So let's start,

We are covering below topic; 
  • IMPORTANCE OF APQP
  • QUALITY PLANNING
  • INTRODUCTION OF APQP
  • PURPOSE OF APQP 
  • 5 PHASES OF APQP
APQP "Brainstorming" image


Quality management system has 5 core tools and listed as below:
  1. APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning) 
  2. PPAP 
  3. MSA 
  4. SPC (Statistical Process Control) 
  5. FMEA 
APQP = Advanced Product Quality Planning 
APQP is the higher level of quality planning. 

Learn importantance of APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning) : 

Below mentioned points will explain the necessity of APQP: 

1. Identify ways to improve 
2. Means for tracking and checking 
3. Contingency planning 
4. Without any plan..? 
5. Do it right first time 
6. Validation/Verification  
7. Better quality product 
8. To ensure customer satisfaction 

1. Identify ways to improve: It means, planning is very important to improvements. 

2. Means for tracking and checking: For whatever we are planning, for that we need a way so that we can track & check it. 

3. Contingency planning: If there is any problem in planning, it helps us to make contingency plan for that. 

4. Without any plan..? : Chances of failures are more if there is no plan. 

5. Do it right first time : By planning, we can make our project right at first time. 

6. Validation/Verification : We can do correctly validation/verification of part. 

7. Better quality product : Our product will turn out to be a better product. 

8. To Ensure customer satisfaction : Fully meeting customer requirements.


Quality Planning : 

It is a systematic approach in which we understand customer requirements and ensure that can we fulfill all customer requirements. 


Now friends, we'll understand about APQP.
APQP means Advanced Product Quality Planning. We do APQP while developing a new product and at that time it is planned that we understand all the customer requirements, so that when our SOP starts, there are no any problem at that time. 

INTRODUCTION: 

Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) provides a structure for planning, defining and completing the necessary activities to develop a new product that are on target of customer's needs & expectations. 

HISTORY:

During the late 80s, APQP program were in use by major player of the automotive industry "BIG 3" all had an APQP deployment and saw the need to come together to create a common core of product quality planning principles for suppliers. To make sure suppliers met customer's quality requirements for each component supplied.
After that it is popular in 19s and Automotive Industries Action Group (AIAG) agency was accepted this. 

Purpose of APQP: 

According to automotive industries action group (AIAG), the purpose of APQP is to provide a product quality plan which will support development of a new product that will satisfy the customer through timely completion of required goals with minimal or no quality issues.


There are 5 phases of APQP are as below: 

5 Phases of APQP: 

  1. Plan and define program 
  2. Product design, and development verification 
  3. Process design, and development verification 
  4. Product and process validation and production feedback 
  5. Launch, Assessment and Corrective action 

APQP “Brainstorming "  image #2


1. Plan and define program : 

In this phase, we define the new product that we are developing, what the product is, how it is and plan all activities to be done in it. A cross functional team is formed in which people from different departments are involved and all give their own input, brainstorming occurs and generate the concept in the first phase. 

2. Product design, and development verification :

In this phase, we understand the design and drawing of the new product that, how the design of the product is. After that, DFMEA (Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) done and find out the failures in it. 

3. Process design, and development verification : 

In this phase, we understand the process step by step that how it is done. Then we are done PFMEA of the process and find out the failures in it. 

4. Product and process validation and production feedback : 

In this phase, after we have designed the product and process, we run the production and validate its results to see how much valid our process is and how much well our products has been prepared. 
We consider it in the study. 

5.  Launch, Assessment and Corrective action : 

In this phase, after validation of products and process, we launch the production and start the initial production of new product. After that, we do the assessment that how our product is made and how many variation in the process.
If the variations of the process is high then we'll decide that which corrective action need to take. We work on all these things in 5th phase. 


Monday, November 25, 2019

Meanings of Quality

Quality has variety of meanings.
  • Fitness for purpose : The component is said to posses of good quality if it works well in the equipment for which it is meant quality is thus called fitness for use or purpose. 
  • Grade : Quality is a distinguishing feature or grade of the product in appearance, performance, taste, life, releability and mentainability etc. This is generally called a quality characterstics. 
  • Customer satisfaction : Quality is a measure of fulfilment of the promises made to the customer. 

Principles of Quality assurance_only two basic principles

Principle of Quality assurance 

Fit for use or purpose : 

The component is said to possess of good quality if it works well in the equipment.
                                       OR
The product should be suitable for intended purpose.

Right first time : It means that the overall mistakes should be eliminated.

Some of related question that help to improve your basic knowledge.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

What is Quality control?

    Quality control 



Quality control image

History:

 20 वीं  शताब्दी के शुरुआत से पहले manufacturer बड़े पैमाने पर  उत्पादन के समय अपना फोकस quality की बजाए quantity पर देते थे। वो quantity को ज्यादा महत्व देते थे। उस समय  के manufacturers को quality control का सही meaning नहीं पता चला था।वह क्वालिटी कंट्रोल को कम manpower cost का उपयोग करते हुए production बढ़ाने के लिए मशीनरी और टेक्नोलॉजी में सुधार का एक साधन समझते थे। quality की बजाय quantity पर ध्यान देने का यह दौर उनका ज्यादा दिन नहीं चला । अधिक quantity मे उत्पादन या mass production के समय products मे अधिक असमानता आने लगी थी। जिसके चलते customers भी असंतुष्ट रहते थे।
 लेकिन 20 के दशक तक demands और compitition बढ़ने के कारण  मैन्यूफैक्चर का focus quantity से quality की ओर जाना स्वभाविक सा बन गया था, जो कि अनिवार्य भी था। उस समय manufacturers को कम में अधिक करने की आवश्यकता थी। customers की असंतुष्टि के चलते यह भी स्पष्ट हो चुका था कि मैन्युफैक्चरिंग में mass प्रोडक्शन के समय products और manufacturing processes का under क्वालिटी कंट्रोल होना अनिवार्य है।
Quality control  न केवल  consumers के लिए products की क्वालिटी को improve करने में मदद करता है बल्कि manufacturing processes और efficiency को भी improve करता है।
Quality control defective products  बनने से पहले रोकने के लिए और manufacturing processes मे समस्याओं का पता लगाने और उन्हें ठीक करने के लिए पेश किया गया था। सन् 1920 में, Walter A. Shewhart ने process मैं गणेशन का पता लगाने के लिए एक control chart का निर्माण किया   जिसमें  process  मे हो रहे variations को स्पष्ट देख सकते थे।  उन्होंने यह प्रदर्शित किया कि manufacturing process मे variations से products मे variations आती है।  उन्होंने कहा कि processes में variation को eliminate नही कर सकते लेकिन हम processes हो रहे variations कम तो कर सकते हैं इसलिए  process मे हो रहे variation को कम करने पर जोर दिया गया।

इससे स्पष्ट दिखाई देता है कि qulity control ने पुनर्निर्माण की उन्नति में एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई है और इसका अस्तित्व आज भी industries के लिए महत्वपूर्ण है।

7QC tools which is used for problem solving in industry.   

        7 QC TOOLS

    1. Check sheet
    2. Histogram 
    3. Scatter diagram 
    4. Pareto diagram 
    5. Cause and effect diagram
    6. Graph & Control chart 
    7. Flow chart 

    1. Check sheet :-  

    It is a format used to collect data in real time at the location where the data is generated.


    Check sheet image



    Purpose :- 
    • Tools for collecting &  organizing measured & counted data 
    • Data collected can be used as input data for other quality tools

    2. Histogram :- 

    Histogram is very important tool and used for understand the distribution of collected data.

    Histogram की मदद से हम collected data के distribution को समझते हैं उसके बाद हमे आगे action लेने में आसानी रहती हैं।



    Histogram image


    3. Pareto diagram :-

    Pareto diagram हमें problem का analysis करने के बाद priorities करने में help करता हैं।
    It is a prioritization tool.


    Pareto diagram image

    When to use Pareto :-

    • Prioritising problem
    • Analyzing symptoms 
    • Proving effectiveness of remedy

    4. Scatter diagram  :- 

    To identify the correlation between two variables. 

    It shows the graphical representation of relationship. 


    Scatter diagram image


    5. Cause and effect diagram  :- 

    It is also known as Isikawa diagram. 
    Fishbone diagram is a tool to identify potential cause, root cause to identified after validation. 


    Fishbone diagram image

    Purpose :- 

    Graphical representation of potential causes of a problem. 

    Benefits :- 

    • यह potential causes को identify करने में मदद करता है। 
    • Brainstorming relationship को establish करता हैं। 
    • Problem के causing factor को समझने में मदद करता है। 

    6. Flow chart  :- 

    Visual illustration of the sequence of operations required to complete a task. 

    यह हमे किसी process के sequence को समझने मे help करता हैं।  यह एक schematic drawing होती है जिसमे हम Process को step by step समझते कि process हमारा कैसे Flow करेगा। 


    Flow chart image


    Benefits :-

    • यह हमे process improvement की opportunity को identify करने में मदद करता है। 
    • Process को समझने मे help करता है और अगर process मे कोई non value added activity है तो हम उसको भी identify करके improve कर सकते हैं। 

    7. Control chart  :- 


    A control chart is a line graph used to display variation on time order interval. 

    (Control chart एक line graph होता है जिसका Use हम एक interval of time मे process के variation को देखने मे करते हैं।) 


    Control chart image

    A centre line and control limits are placed on graph to help analyzing the pattern of data. 

    Purpose :-

    • Control chart indicates whether a process is in control or not. 
    • It ensures product quality level 
    • To identify the dynamic or special causes of variation in a repeating process



    Quality control 


    Definition : 

    The activities focus on identifying defect in the actual products produced. Quality control is a set of activities for ensuring quality in products.

    (Quality control वह किर्या है जिसमें किसी product के उत्पादन मे defect को identify करने पर ध्यान देते है!)
                                OR

    It is the process of inspecting products to ensure that they meet the required quality standard.

    (यह उत्पादो को परखने की पृकिर्या है कि वे required quality standard को पुरा करेंगे! )

    Quality control image


    According to ISO 9000 -

    ISO 9000 defines the quality control as a part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirement.

    (ISO 9000 क्वालिटी कन्टृोल को quality management के एक हिस्से के रुप मे define करता है जो किसी product के लिए दी गई requirement को पुरा करता है! )

    Companies that engage in quality control typically have a team of workers who focus on testing a certain member of products or observing services being done. The products that are examined usually are choosen at randomly. The goal of the team is to identify products that do not meet a company's specified standards of quality.

    (वें कंपनिया जो quality control से सम्बंधित है , उनमे
    workers की एक टीम जो उत्पादन से निकल रहे उत्पाद की testing पर ध्यान देती हैैै! Product को बिना किसी sequence/serial के चुनकर check करते है! टिम का उध्देश्य उन उत्पादो को पहचानना है जो क्वालिटी के लिए company के specified standard को पुरा नही करेंगें! )



    If a problem is caught or identified, the job of a quality control team and professinal might involve stopping production untill the problem has been solved.

    (अगर कोई major defect/problem पकड़ा जाए तब quality control team अौर professionals उत्पादन को रुकवा सकते है जब तक problem solve ना हो  जाए! )




    After that other individuals are discover the causes of problem and fixing them.
    After the problem solving and the problems are overcome and the target of problem solving has been achieved, the products continues under production or implementation as usual.
    Many types of companies perform these type of quality checks.

    (उसके बाद दुसरे individuals problem के cause को discover करते है और उसे ठिक करते है!
    समस्या के solve होने के बाद और problem के आने से बंद होने के बाद products के उत्पादन को जारी कर दिया जाता है! )


    We hope you will understand this topic.

    👍

    Thank you😊
     Some of related question that help to improve your basic knowledge.

    Thursday, November 14, 2019

    What is Quality assurance?

    Quality Assurance

    हेलो दोस्तों, आज हम बात करने वाले है Quality assurance बारे में।
    Quality assurance.
     द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध के बाद, जापान की अर्थव्यवस्था पूरी तरह से तहस-नहस हो चुकी थी। जिसके चलते जापान में manufacturing capabilities खत्म हो चुकी थी युद्ध के दौरान नष्ट हो चुकी जापान की manufacturing capabilities को दोबारा से निर्मित करने का कार्य किया गया था। General MacArthur ने जापान के पुनर्निर्माण का कार्य संभाला। उन्होंने जापान में modern quality concept के डेवलपमेंट के लिए अमेरिका से दो प्रमुख लोगों को  बुलाया। जिसमें से  एक थे W. Edward deming जो उस समय statistical quality control के विशेषज्ञ माने जाते थे और दूसरे थे Josef M. Juran जो की  अमेरिकन  इंजीनियर और management consultant थे। इन्होंने क्वालिटी मैनेजमेंट के ऊपर काफी सारी books भी लिखी थी। उन्होंने जापान में रहकर Japanese कंपनियों के वर्करों को क्वालिटी कंसेप्ट के ऊपर ट्रेनिंग देना शुरू कर दिया और  उस समय statistical quality control एक नया concept सामने आया और भी कई सारे quality development के तरीकों की ट्रेनिंग वर्करों को provide करवाई गई। 
    सबसे पहले तो आप जाने की क्वालिटी होती क्या है? 

    वैसे तो क्वालिटी की काफी सारी definition हो सकती है जिनमें से एक definition यह भी है:-

    Quality

    "Meeting the customer requirements". यानी कि कस्टमर की रिक्वायरमेंट को पूरा करेंगे।


    Assurance: 

    Assurance means a promise to customer that something will certainly happen and be right or true.

    Quality Assurance: 

    it is a planned and systematic action necessity to provide adequate confidence that a product will satisfy the given requirements for quality.

    (Quality assurance एक planned और systematic action है, जो customer को  विश्वास दिलाता है कि प्रोडक्ट गुणवत्ता के लिए दी गई requurements को पूरा करेगा।)

                              Or

    Quality assurance is a set of activities for ensuring quality in the processes by which products are doveloped.

    (Quality Assurance  एक गतिविधियों का set है जो किसी process में बने हुए उत्पाद की गुणवत्ता को सुनिश्चित करता या परखता है।)

    Quality assurance image


    As per ISO 9000: 

    Qualiy assurance is the part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.

    (Quality assurance क्वालिटी मैनेजमेंट का एक हिस्सा है जिसका पूरा ध्यान विश्वास दिलाने में रहता है कि गुणवत्ता के लिए दी गई requirements को पूरा करेंगे।)

    Aim of Quality Assurance: 

    • Continuous quality improvement ( गुणवत्ता में लगातार सुधार
    • Benchmarking to generate ideas for quality 
    ( product क्वालिटी की सुधार के लिए benchmarking की  मदद से नई आईडिया जनरेट करना) 

    •  Ensure the total traceability of product. 
    (Product की traceability को सुनिश्चित करना।)


    • Meet quality standadard for products. 
    (Product के लिए quality standard को पूरा करना।)


    • Suitability of the products to customer requirement. 
    (Customer requirements के लिए product की उपयुक्तता।) 

    We hope you will understand this topic.
    Thank you. 

    Tuesday, November 12, 2019

    Most popular definitions for Quality

    What is Quality?

    QUALITY CONCEPTS
    Basic Definition : Quality is a relative term and it is used with reference to the end use of the product. It represents the property of the product that are valued by the consumers.

    Quality perceived differently by different people.

    First, this is very important to know that difference betwen quality and reliability for you.
    Quality : Meeting the customer requirement.
    Reliability : It is the ability of the product and service to continue to meet the customer requirement.

    Most popular definition for quality are listed below :

    • As per iso 9000:2015 - "Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characterstics of an object fulfill requirements."
    • According to Phillips B. Crosby - "Quality is conformance to requirements/specification."
    • According to Edward Deming - "A predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost and suited to market."
    • According to Walter Shewhart - "What the customer wants.   OR     "Customer need."
    According to Joseph M. Juran - "Fitness for use."
    POINT OF VIEW  :-


    • From customer point of view - Quality means fitness for use and meeting fulfill requirement and customer satisfaction.

    • From process point of view - Quality means conformance to specification or requirement process design and standard.

    • From product point of view - Quality means the degree to excellence at an acceptable price.

    • From cost point of view - Quality means best combination between cost and features.
    👍


    Thank you .😊

    Quality assurance_In hindi _Concept of Quality asurance

    Quality assurance image

    CONCEPT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Definition : It is a planned and systematic action necessity to provide adequate confidence that a product will satisfy the give requirement for quality.

      हिंदी अनुवाद :Quality assurance एक Planned और systematic action है जो customer को विश्वास दिलाता है कि product गुणवत्ता के लिए दी गई requirement को पुरा करेगा !


                                     OR
    Quality assurance is a set of activities for ensuring quality in the processes by which products are developed.

     हिंदी अनुवाद : Quality assurance एक गतिविधियों का set है जो किसी process में बने हुए उत्पाद की गुणवत्ता को सुनिश्चित करता या परखता है !

                                      OR
    As per ISO 9000 : Quality assurance is the part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirement will be fulfilled.

     हिंदी अनुवाद : Quality assurance क्वालिटी मैनेजमैंट का एक हिस्सा है जिसका पुरा ध्यान विश्वास देने मे रहता है कि गुणवत्ता के लिए दी गई requirement को पुरा करेंगे !


    Aim of Quality assurance :-

    • Continueous Quality improvement.
    • Benchmarking to generate ideas for quality.
    • Ensure the total traceability of the product.
    • Meet quality standards for products.
    • Suitability of the products to customer requirement.


     हिंदी अनुवाद: 

    • गुणवत्ता मे लगातार सुधार 
    • Product की गुणवत्ता मे सुधार के लिए benchmarking की मदद से नए idea generate करना 
    • Product की traceability को सुनिश्चित करना
    • Product के लिए quality standards को पुरा करना
    • Customer requirement के लिए उत्पाद की suitability(उपयुक्तता) 

    Quality control_in hindi also How it is done in an organization(हिंदी मे भी)

    Quality control 

    Definition : The activities focus on identifying defect in the actual products produced. Quality control is a set of activities for ensuring quality in products.

    (Quality control वह किर्या है जिसमें किसी product के उत्पादन मे defect को identify करने पर ध्यान देते है!)
                                OR

    It is the process of inspecting products to ensure that they meet the required quality standard.

    (यह उत्पादो को परखने की पृकिर्या है कि वे required quality standard को पुरा करेंगे! )


    According to ISO 9000 -
    ISO 9000 defines the quality control as a part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirement.

    (ISO 9000 क्वालिटी कन्टृोल को quality management के एक हिस्से के रुप मे define करता है जो किसी product के लिए दी गई requirement को पुरा करता है! )

    Companies that engage in quality control typically have a team of workers who focus on testing a certain member of products or observing services being done. The products that are examined usually are choosen at randomly. The goal of the team is to identify products that do not meet a company's specified standards of quality.

    (वें कंपनिया जो quality control से सम्बंधित है , उनमे
    workers की एक टीम जो उत्पादन से निकल रहे उत्पाद की testing पर ध्यान देती हैैै! Product को बिना किसी sequence/serial के चुनकर check करते है! टिम का उध्देश्य उन उत्पादो को पहचानना है जो क्वालिटी के लिए company के specified standard को पुरा नही करेंगें।)



    If a problem is caught or identified, the job of a quality control team and professinal might involve stopping production untill the problem has been solved.

    (अगर कोई major defect/problem पकड़ा जाए तब quality control team और professionals उत्पादन को रुकवा सकते है जब तक problem solve ना हो  जाए।)




    After that other individuals are discover the causes of problem and fixing them.
    After the problem solving and the problems are overcome and the target of problem solving has been achieved, the products continues under production or implementation as usual.
    Many types of companies perform these type of quality checks.

    (उसके बाद दुसरे individuals problem के cause को discover करते है और उसे ठिक करते है!
    समस्या के solve होने के बाद अौर problem के अाने से बंद होने के बाद products के उत्पादन को जारी कर दिया जाता है! )

    👍
    Thank you 😊 so much..
    (सधन्यवाद)

    ...

    Defect analysis_and its necessity (हिंदी में भी)

    Defect analysis :

    Defect analysis is a part of contineous quality improvement planning in which defects are classified in different categories and are also used to identify the possible causes in order to prevent the problem from occuring.

    ( Defect analysis quality improvement planning का एक हिस्सा है जिसमें defect को अलग-अलग categories में classified करते हैं और आ रही समस्या को हमेशा के लिए खत्म करने के लिए possible causes को identify करने मे भी इसका पृयोग होता है! )


    Necessity : It is nacessary to identify
    how issue can be prevented and in reducing or eliminating significant number of defects from being injected into the system .

    ( यह identify करने के लिए जरुरी है कि कैसै समस्या को prevent (हमेशा के लिए खत्म)   कर सकते है और सिस्टम मे defects की एक महत्वपुर्ण संख्या को कम करने के लिए जरुरी हैं! )


    Defect analysis can be used for measurement of change before and after the introduction of the improvements.
    It helps in improving both productivity and quality. It also helps in reducing the effort needed for defect removal on a long-term basis.                    ........simple words



    Thank you 😊


    Some of related question that help to improve your basic knowledge.

    Saturday, November 9, 2019

    What is TQM in quality. Basic concept of Total Quality Management

    हेलो दोस्तों, आपका स्वागत है हमारे Blog Quick skills quality में आज हम जानेंगे TQM यानी Total Quality Management के बारे में।


    Total quality management image


    TQM - TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 

    It is not the collection of the tool and technique.
    it is the culture, not a program.
    The goal of TQM is customer satisfaction.

    Total image

    • TOTAL: The involvement and input of everyone, it means all employees from Associates to top management have to take part in it. 

    Quality image

    • QUALITY: Fully meeting customer needs and requirements all the time. 

    Management text image

    • MANAGEMENT: The way we act, operate, control and handle it. 
    (Art of planning, organising, controlling etc.)


    Definition: 
    TQM (Total Quality Management) is a management approach focusing on the improvement of quality and performance in all functions departments and processes across the company to provide Quality Services which exceed customer expectations. 

    (TQM (Total Quality Management) एक Management  का approach है, जिसका Focus कंपनी के सभी processes, departments और functions की performance और quality को improve करना और customers को quality service देना जो customers ची expectations को पूरा करे।) 

    Principal of TQM:
    1. Customer satisfaction 
    2. Do it right first time ( इसका मतलब है जो काम कर रहे हो उसे पहली बार में ही सही करो)
    3. Continuous improvements 
    4. Employees involvement 
    5. Empowering the staff 
    6. Benchmarking 
    7. Feedback mechanism 
    Quality gurus of TQM: 
    • William Edward Deming 
    •  Joseph M. Juran 
    •  Armand V. Fiegenbaum 
    • Philip B. Crosby

    Limitations: 
    1. Cost in time and money
    2. Fear of change 


     Benefits: 
    1. It makes the company as a leader not a follower.
    2. Establish the better connections between customers, management and workers. 
    3. It helps to make better team work.
    4. It makes the company more sensitive to customer needs.
    5. It provide the benefit to customer also:
    • Fewer problems with product & service
    • Better customer care
    • Greater satisfaction 

    Friday, November 8, 2019

    Origin points of quality circle in hindi

    जापान में क्वालिटी सर्कल की उत्पत्ति :
    हैलो दोस्तो, आज हम बात करने वाले है उस समय की जब WWI 2 के बाद जापान की अर्थव्यवस्था तहस नहस हो चुकी थी। ऐसे समय पर क्वालिटी सर्कल की उत्पत्ति का दौर शुरु हुआ था। क्वालिटी सर्कल का जनक  प्रोफेसर के• इशिकावा को माना जाता है । क्वालिटी सर्कल की उत्पत्ति के कुछ महत्वपूर्ण बिंदु इस प्रकार से हैं :

    • जापान के जर्नल मैक आर्थर के अनुरोध पर वर्ष 1949-50 मे Dr. Edward deming विशेषज्ञ SQC तकनीक का अमेरिका से जापान जाना।
    • वर्ष 1956 में जूस द्वारा आयोजित गुणवत्ता नियंत्रण कार्यक्रम का रेडियो और टेलीविजन पर  प्रसारित किया।
    • वर्ष 1960 में जापान सरकार ने प्रत्येक नवंबर माह को राष्ट्रीय क्वालिटी माह घोषित किया।
    • वर्ष 1962 में सर्वप्रथम क्वालिटी सर्कल की स्थापना प्रोफेसर Kaoru Ishikawa के नेतृत्व में हुआ।
    • वर्ष 1971 में प्रथम राष्ट्रीय क्वालिटी सर्कल सम्मेलन तथा वर्ष 1978 में प्रथम अंतरराष्ट्रीय क्वालिटी सर्कल सम्मेलन का आयोजन जापान में हुआ।
    • इस प्रकार इस विचारधारा को तेजी से दूसरे देशों में भी अपनाया जाने लगा।
    धन्यवाद !😊 आशा करता हूं कि आपको यह Topic समझ में आया होगा और आप पसंद भी करेंगे।

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