Thursday, May 14, 2020

3M (Muda, Mura, Muri) | Discuss on types of waste | QSQTECH.COM

3M (Muda, Mura, Muri)

Hello friends, 
Today, We'll discuss on 3M concept. Hopefully, you'll understand this topic.
First of all, thanks for visiting.
Now, below topics that are covering today.
  • 7+1 FORMS OF MUDA.

3M image


After ww2 Toyota was almost bankrupt. 
  • Postwar, demand was low and minimizing the cost per unit through economics of scale was inappropriate. This led to the development of demand led full systems.
  • The Japanese could not afford the expansive mass production facilities of the type used in the U.S.A so they instead focused on reducing waste and low cost automation. 
  • Likewise, Toyota couldn't afford to maintain high inventory level.
  • The Toyota production system was developed a time when Toyota needed to do more with less on flexible lines and reduce the time from order to delivery to get paid quickly.
  • The emphasis was on reducing the timeline by eliminating anything that didn't add value to the product eliminating waste.
  • Lean principle was an outcome of study of TPS (Toyota Production System).

Lean principle: 

Lean focused on eliminating waste and constantly reducing the cycle time. As the waste is eliminating, quality improves while the cycle time of process and the cost are reduced.

TAICHI OHNO is founder of Toyota Production System.
He defined the 7 types of muda.
He says that, all we are doing is looking at timeline from the moment of customer gives us an order to the point, when we collect the cash,and we are reducing that timeline by removing the non value added wastage.
Originally, Toyota Production System was called "Just In Time” production system which is popularly known as a lean manufacturing process.


There are 3 types of waste.

  1. MUDA
  2. MURA
  3. MURI

1. MUDA: 

It is a Japanese term that means waste. Any activity that doesn't add value. It only consumes time & cost.

There are two types of MUDA.
TYPE-1 MUDA: It includes non-value added activities in the processes that are necessary for the end customer. As a result, it can be minimized. E.g.  Inspection. 

TYPE-2 MUDA: It includes non-value added activities in the processes that are unnecessary for the customer. As a result, it should be eliminated.
E.g. — Rework.


There are two types of activities. 
  1. Value added activity 
  2. Non value added activity 

1.  Value added activity: 

This is the activity that transfers the product in such a form for which the customer pays us.

2. Non-value added activity:

This is an activity that doesn't add any value to the product and the customer doesn't pay for it either. 
We do value added activity 10% and non-value added activity we do 90%.

Non-value added activity is of two types.
  1. Necessary waste
  2. Pure waste

1. Necessary waste:

This is the activity that is necessary to run a business but can minimize it. Such as, inspection which doesn't add value but is necessary to prevent defect outflow from our end to customer, and it also maintains quality. 

2. Pure waste: 

This is an activity that only consumes resources but doesn't add any value to the product. It is not needed by the organization  nor does the customer pay for it. Such activities should be eliminated. Like- Inventory, wait time, rework, excess check.


  1. Defect
  2. Overproduction 
  3. Waiting 
  4. Non-utilized talent (New)
  5. Transportation 
  6. Inventory 
  7. Motion
  8. Extra processing 
In all these form of muda, Non utilized talent is that was later develop. It is developed by Toyota Production System (TPS).

1. Waste of Defect/Repair/Reject: 

Rejection or scrap generated for not being able to produce a quality product in the first place is called a defect. Due to the production of scrap, the material which is scrap, is checked, rework or segregation and repair. The cost is fixed. it is called waste of defect.

2. Waste of overproduction: 

Creating a product excessively or prerequisite and without the need of the customer is called overproduction. Overproduction is the worst waste of everyone else.

3. Waste of waiting:

Waiting of the operator due to delay between an operation or the machine being stuck for some reason or the machine being busy, is called waiting. 

4. Waste of non-utilized talent:

The company's most important resources are its own employees. Not being able to use the right time and talent of its employees is waste of non-utilized talent. For example- Putting technician in paperwork. Problem solving only by the experts. Do not include everyone in suggestions and improvements. 

5. Waste of tranportation:

Any unnecessary movement of material, people, information, or supplies between process that is not required for 'just in time' production service. It also creates an opportunity for damage to occur.
For example- Transportation of cheaper component from one country to another. 

6. Waste of inventory: 

Excess parts, materials or work in process that is not being used.

7. Waste of motion: 

Any motion of people or machine that does not add value to the product or process.

8. Waste of extra processing:

Over processing is putting more into the merchandise than is valued by the customer.

2. MURA : 

It means unevenness, uniformity & irregularity.
Any activity that does not add value.
Unlevel workloads on people & machine.

3. MURI : 

It is the Japanese term for overburden.
It means strenuous conditions for both workers and equipment as well as for the work process.

We hope you will understand this topic.

Thank you.

Some of related questions that help to improve your basic knowledge and you need to know.

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