Thursday, June 25, 2020

Just In Time (JIT) manufacturing | QSQTECH.COM

JUST IN TIME (JIT)

Hello friends,
Today, we will talk and discuss about a very modern concept in the field of manufacturing. It is also know as time manufacturing or lean manufacturing.
Just In Time Manufacturing Strategy

First of all, thanks for visiting.
Now, below topics that are covering today. 
  • INTRODUCTION 
  • HISTORY 
  • ADVANTAGES OF JUST IN TIME (JIT)
  • DISADVANTAGES 
  • 7 TYPES OF WASTES 
  • HOW TO APPLY JIT (Just InTime)?

INTRODUCTION: 

As we know that, when we require raw material for the manufacture of any product. we purchase more than enough raw material and store its more quantity and collect it in the godown. Due to which, we may have to send back the remaining raw material after manufacturing or it may even get spoiled. On sending back the raw material, our transportation cost goes to extras and if the remaining Raw material gets spoiled, then our money on it gets wasted. 
Just in time tells us that raw material for manufacturing the product should be procured only when the demand of the customer is in your hands. That is, we should purchase raw material only after the customer's requirement. According to the need, we have to take raw material. 
Just In Time Definition Image


Just In Time manufacturing strategy is that, when companies get customer's demand, they buy the raw material according to the need, otherwise not.

Definition: 

It is an inventory management system which is used to manage the stock that is kept. 

Finished Goods barcode scanner system
Finished goods barcode management system

FG Barcode management system:-

In this, A scanner device using for scanning barcode, this device is integrated with a software based application and used for auto process for our FG parts transfer to our system in actual number of parts. It makes auto invoicing for customer by using barcode scanning system. This system is a game changer for our organization. All inventories are controlled by this. This is make sure that product sent to customer at right time, right quantity and right location. It avoid also customer concerns like wrong part supply, wrong label and supply delay etc.
It involves receiving good from the suppliers as and when required and rather than carrying a large inventory at once. Companies used this inventory strategy to increase efficiency and reduce wastage, so that the manufacturing process could only receive goods as needed which reduce inventory cost. This method requires procedure of focus demand accurately. 
This strategy is also called Toyota Production System (TPS) because it was developed by Toyota in Japan. This strategy was first used by Toyota in 1970s and it gave them good results in manufacturing journey. 

Just In Time (JIT) is also known by different name in different companies: 

  • Lean Manufacturing 
  • Just In Time 
  • Toyota Production System 
  • Lean Production 
  • Synchronous Manufacturing.


HISTORY:

  • In 1960s, Taichi Ohno and his colleagues developed the Toyota Production System.
  • In 1970s, the U.S. and European auto manufacturers began implementing the JIT strategy to improve quality and productivity. 
  • In 1990s and beyond: JIT strategy was adopted by manufacturers to streamline all types of operations. 

ADVANTAGES OF JUST IN TIME (JIT): 

  • Less space needed 
  • Reduce inventory 
  • Reduce wastage 
  • Smaller investment 
  • Healthy cash flow 
  • Involve both supplier and customer to eliminate non value added activity. 
  • Improve quality and productivity. 

DISADVANTAGES: 

  • Risk of running out of stock 
  • Lack of control over time frame 
  • More planning required 
  • Little room for mistake 

The aim of JIT strategy us to eliminate the wastage and continuous improvement in productivity.

JIT (Just In Time) can't be implemented without eliminating or reducing seven deadly wastes from the manufacturing process. So in order to apply JIT, seven deadly wastes have to be eliminated from the process.
On seven wastes, in the previous concept 3M (Muda, Mura, Muri) was discussed as seven types of Muda.
You can read this concept by clicking the link above.

7 TYPES OF WASTES: 

  1. Defect
  2. Overproduction 
  3. Waiting 
  4. Non-utilized talent (New)
  5. Transportation 
  6. Inventory 
  7. Motion
  8. Extra processing 
In all these form of muda, Non utilized talent is that was later develop. It is developed by Toyota Production System (TPS). 

HOW TO APPLY JIT (Just In Time)? 

There are some important points that if applies in processes, then it is possible to implementing the JIT (Just In Time) strategy. 
These points are below:
  • Develop people: increase skills, productivity, morale
  • Eliminate waste in all areas
  • Optimize material handling and production flow 
  • Control tooling 
  • Increase quality
  • Continously improvement. 

Thursday, June 18, 2020

Engineering Drawing | Angle of Projection | QSQTECH.COM

ENGINEERING DRAWING 

Hello friends,

Today, We'll discuss on Industrial Engineering Drawing. Hopefully, you'll understand this topic.

First of all, thanks for visiting.
Now, below topics that are covering today. 
  • INTRODUCTION 
  • ANGLE OF PROJECTION 
  • CUT SECTIONS
  • TITLE BLOCK. 

INTRODUCTION: 

Industrial Engineering Drawing is an art that visually communicates how the construction of any function or product will be made.
In the organization, drawing of that product has an important role in making any product. Developing a new product, requires the design and drawing of the product. It shows how our product will be designed and it also reveals each of the product's dimensions.
To make the picture easy to read, a table of symbol's information is displayed, a title block showing the part number, details of the part, information about the first angle and third angle and ECN revision number also displayed in Industrial Engineering Drawing. 
Its purpose is to accurately and reliably demonstrate the geometric features of the product.

ANGLE OF PROJECTION:

First angle and Third angle projection are part of the orthographic projection system. Orthographic projection system is used to represent a 3D object in a 2D plane. 
Symbol of First Angle & Third Angle Projection.

In this system, two types of projection are used to make the drawing. 
  • First angle projection
  • Third angle projection.
The variation of the First angle and Third angle projection is shown through a clear symbol.

First Angle Projection: 

First Angle Projection is commonly used in European countries.
First Angle Projection.

 In First Angle Projection, 
  • The object is imagined 1st quadrant. 
  • The object is placed in front of vertical plane and top of horizontal plane.
  • The object is lies between observer and vertical plane.
  • To draw the front view and top view, the front view and top view are projected on the vertical plane and horizontal plane, respectively. 
  • According to the law of projection, the horizontal plane is rotated in clockwise direction. When rotating the horizontal surface, this rotation brings the top view below the front view.

Third Angle Projection: 

Third Angle Projection is used in Asian countries and is widely used in the United States.
Third Angle Projection.


In Third Angle Projection, 
  • The object is imagined in 3rd quadrant. 
  • The object is placed in bottom of horizontal plane and behind the vertical plane.
  • To draw the front view and top view of object, the top view and front view are projected on the horizontal plane and vertical plane, respectively. 
  • According to the law of projection, the horizontal plane is rotated in clockwise direction. When rotating the horizontal surface, this rotation brings the top view above the front view.

CUT SECTIONS:

In this, the cut section (A-A, B-B, C-C etc) as shown in drawing cuts the cutting sections. Dimensions are checked in such a way that all dimensions of the parts must conform to our given drawing. 
Cut sections.

If dimensions of part are not correct, the part is rejected. To check the part, the part is cut from all the cut sections as shown in drawing.

TITLE BLOCK:

It is given at the bottom right corner of the drawing sheet. Title is not visible due to security reason. This is only for training purpose.

It shows the details of parts number, parts name, ECN number or ECN revision number, projection detail (first angle & third angle projection symbol), name of drawing maker, date etc.





Thursday, June 11, 2020

Process Audit Vs Product Audit | QSQTECH.COM

Process Audit Vs Product Audit 

Hello friends,
In the previous concept, we understood what is Audit and Types of System Audit. Now we will discuss on product audit and process audit. Before that it is also necessary to be familiar with the audit once again, then we will revise the definition of the audit again in this concept. 
Process audit vs Product audit.

Audit: 

it is a systematic approach in which independent auditor examine the documented process to evaluate and determine the audit evidence that the process is fulfilled their audit criteria.

Managing the process and product is very important in the manufacturing sector. We need to see that our process is running correctly, and check the product to see if it is making right. This is why we audit both process and product. Now we will understand about product audit and process audit.

Process Audit: 

Process audit is an important integral part of quality management system. Process audit is very much important in those companies which is relates to manufacturing. If we talk about automotive industries then in automotive Industries, we use IATF 16949 which is the latest quality management system. IATF 16949 talks about the exclusive requirements on process audit. So using good practice, and you should be done process audit for conducting audits for all the processes either it is manufacturing and other transactional or service processes. 
In process audit, we verify whether our process is meeting the given working standard, and all parameters. In this, we verify that our process or the work that we had decided, we would do our work with work instruction or criteria.
If the process parameter is not correct then output will not correct. So basically, we check those parameters in the process audit. Like work instruction, control plan. These are the reference documents which is shows that process parameter is in control or not. 
So it is very important to the manufacturing organization to ensure quality of the product being manufactured and dispatch to the customer. Process audit helps to identifying the abnormality in the process so that we can take action on it and making continually improvements.

Definition: 

Process audit is an 'examination' to determine the process effectiveness and efficiency using control plan, work instructions, procedures and customer specific required approaches and is aimed at ensuring output is being achieved. 

Process audit

In IATF 16949:2016 of Quality management system, according to its clause 9.2.2.4 manufacturing process audit, 
  • Audit should be made in all manufacturing process over each three years calendar periods. 
  • Using customer specific approaches else determine the approach to be used.
  • Audit shall be complete with covering all shifts. 
  • Audit of effective implementation of the process, risk analysis (such as PFMEA), control plan, and associated documents. 

Product Audit: 

In product audit, we examine parts. When examining parts, keep in mind the parameters of our control plan and work instructions. In addition, parts are also tested. 

Definition: 

Product audit is the examination of a particular product in order to evaluate whether it conforms to the requirement or not. Specifications (length, width, inner diameter, outer diameter etc.) performance and customer requirements. 
Action to verify or validate an output of product characteristics "each stage of manufacturing processes" in relation to actual design requirements. 

Part thickness verified by Vernier Caliper


 In IATF 16949:2016 of Quality management system, according to its clause 9.2.2.4 product audit, 
The organization will audit products using specific approaches required by customers at appropriate stages of production and delivery to verify conformity to the requirement set by the customers, where not defined by the customer. 

How product audit is done in an organization? 

There are basic 3 steps to complete a product audit is given below;
  1. First of all make a product audit plan. 
  2. Make a check sheet using the drawing/std/control plan. 
  3. Complete all the steps as per the Process Flow Diagram (PFD). 

You will understand this hopefully. 
Thank you. 

Thursday, June 4, 2020

What is an Audit? Discuss types of System Audit | QSQTECH.COM

Audit

Hello friends, 
Today, We'll discuss on Audits. Hopefully, you'll understand this topic.
First of all, thanks for visiting.
Now, below topics that are covering today.
  • INTRODUCTION 
  • TYPES OF SYSTEM AUDIT. 
Audit

INTRODUCTION: 

The word 'Audit' comes from the latin word 'Audire' means to 'Hear'. 
Today, we'll discuss on systematic audit. 
By the way, there are a lot of audits inside the organization as well. For example- Process audit, Product audit, Layered audit and dock audit etc. 

Definition: 

it is a systematic approach in which independent auditor examine the documented process to evaluate and determine the audit evidence that the process is fulfilled their audit criteria. 

Auditor: 

The person who conduct audit is called auditor. 

TYPES OF SYSTEM AUDIT: 

There are three types of system audit. 
  1. First Party Audit 
  2. Second Party Audit 
  3. Third Party Audit. 

1. First Party Audit: 

It is also known as internal audit.
These are conducted by the organization or on its own for management reviews and other internal purposes.
An annual schedule is created for system audit. In this, each function is audited base on frequency. These frequencies can be dynamic.
Frequency of audit shall be dynamic in nature.

2. Second Party Audit: 

It is an audit conducted by customer on its supplier. They have business relationship.

Relationship between customer and supplier.

3. Third Party Audit: 

It is an audit conducted by an external agency for the purpose of certification.
They do not have any business relationship.

You will understand this hopefully.
Thank you.

Some of related questions that helps to increase your basic knowledge and you would like to understand.

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